Operating Systems 2015F Lecture 18
Jump to navigation Jump to search
The video from the lecture given on November 13, 2015 is now available.
Lecture 18 ---------- Virtual Memory swapping, er...paging Swapping technically means writing currently running program to disk and loading another one to run Paging means moving pages out of RAM and onto disk Question: why does linux use much more than the bare minimum of RAM? What is it doing with all of that extra memory? Answer: very aggressive caching of disk contents Problem: But what if I need more RAM for programs? Need algorithms for moving pages between RAM and disk Types of page contents: * Program data * Program code * File contents Note that program code is also (read only) file contents Really, you have: 1. File contents, read only 2. File contents, read write 3. Program data You need more RAM. What do you kick out first? - not such an easy question! Kick out (evict) read only file contents first Pro: we don't have to write anything to disk! Con: Hey, I was running that code! Evict read write file contents Pro: hey they are supposed to go to disk anyway, go ahead and write it Con: but we have to wait for it to be written first Evict program data...to swap Pro: Hey, we didn't need that data anyway Con: Hey, we *did* need that data! Hardware helps with the decision on what pages can be kicked out * accessed bit * dirty bit Ideal eviction targets are pages with accessed bit clear and dirty bit clear (a clean, non-accessed page) Next eviction target is non-accessed dirty pages. Save them to disk then evict After evict accessed but clean pages...but this is bad if done frequently (system is "thrashing") Dirty pages are easy - just have a process constantly writing dirty pages to disk, thus "cleaning" them - sweeps through memory periodically looking for dirty pages Ideally what you'd want is a timestamp of last access for every page For accessed bits, periodically sweep through memory setting accessed bits to 0. If it is 1, then you know the page has been accessed since the last sweep. These "sweep" type algorithms are called clock algorithms because you can think of the pages as positions on a very very big clock, with a hand moving from one to the next. Page replacement algorithms can get very complex because, in their ideal form, they predict the future. Best approximation is a bunch of heuristics and adaptive mechanisms based on past behavior. But page replacement needs to be reasonable, especially on systems with no swap When a program asks for memory, how do you know if you have enough? When do you say no? Conservative way: find pages for every byte requested, return yes only once you've allocated it all Linux kernel is not conservative at all Example: fork - logically, doubles RAM usage - at least, doubles program data RAM usage - but in practice it generally only causes a modest increase in RAM usage Example: malloc - are you really going to use all that memory at once? Linux kernel memory allocation is like banking - gives out loans at a drop of the hat, takes deposits... - assumes everyone won't want their money at once